When it comes to creatures that are known to us only through fossils it's understandable that there's a lot we don’t know. Skin, fur, hair, feathers, fat tissue rarely gets fossilised and fossil remains can't tell much about the behavior of the animal. Hence, it's no secret that when it comes to palaeontology, a fair amount of speculation is allowed.

C.M. Kosemen, an Istanbul-based artist has written a book "All Yesterdays" about prehistoric animals where he shared some of his speculations through illustrations.
He says that animal reconstructions based only on fossils may often pose some inaccuracies. The main reason is that many features of animal bodies may not have survived in fossils, such as pouches, or skin flaps.

Most of us have seen dinosaurs portrayed with deadly grins and massive sharp teeth making them look like terrifying predators. According to Kosemen, actual dinosaurs which inhabited the earth million years ago, may not have looked so terrifying after all. Most of the animals had lips, gums and enough facial fat to hide their vicious grins.
To avoid similar misconceptions himself, the artist tries to take more cues from animals today.

With his illustrations, Koseman challenges current depictions of dinosaurs by offering alternatives, which may be more accurate and knowledgeable.
Check them out below and tell us what you think in the comments.

More info: cmkosemen.com

#1 The Extremely Birdy Predatory Dinosaur Deinonychus Watches The Sunset At A Canyon

The Extremely Birdy Predatory Dinosaur Deinonychus Watches The Sunset At A Canyon

C. M. Kosemen Report

Lou Wow 10 months ago

*watches with its beady eyes.

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#2 Scythe-Armed, Featherless Swans

Scythe-Armed, Featherless Swans

C. M. Kosemen Report

Casandra Nițescu 10 months ago

looks like swans taken from a nightmare :D

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#3 An Elephant, A Rhinoceros And A Horse Reconstructed With The Mistakes We Often See In Reconstructions Of Dinosaurs And Other Extinct Animals. From My Book, All Yesterdays, Unique And Speculative Views Of Dinosaurs And Other Prehistoric Animals

An Elephant, A Rhinoceros And A Horse Reconstructed With The Mistakes We Often See In Reconstructions Of Dinosaurs And Other Extinct Animals. From My Book, All Yesterdays, Unique And Speculative Views Of Dinosaurs And Other Prehistoric Animals

C. M. Kosemen Report

earringnut 10 months ago

this is my favorite! it shows just how far off we are of what we think we know.

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#4 Two Lanky Moganopterus Pterosaurs On A Stroll At An Ancient Beach. Moganopterus Was One Of The Largest Toothed Pterosaurs

Two Lanky Moganopterus Pterosaurs On A Stroll At An Ancient Beach. Moganopterus Was One Of The Largest Toothed Pterosaurs

C. M. Kosemen Report

Lou Wow 10 months ago

How scary is this creature? Huge and deadly with the brain of a pigeon. 😝

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#5 A Short-Tailed Form Of The Popular Sail-Backed Repto-Mammal Dimetrodon. The Background On This Image Is Inaccurate. These Animals Mostly Inhabited Swamps And Jungle

A Short-Tailed Form Of The Popular Sail-Backed Repto-Mammal Dimetrodon. The Background On This Image Is Inaccurate. These Animals Mostly Inhabited Swamps And Jungle

C. M. Kosemen Report

Furious_Lover 10 months ago

It a cute turtle beaver

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#6 The Intermediate-Form Pterosaur, Darwinopterus Modularis, Flashes Its Red Crest For A Potential Mate

The Intermediate-Form Pterosaur, Darwinopterus Modularis, Flashes Its Red Crest For A Potential Mate

C. M. Kosemen Report

Janet Allison 10 months ago

Now that is the devil

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#7 The Giant, Macropredatory Sperm Whale, Livyathan Melvillei, Which Lived 12-13 Million Years Ago. Each Teeth Of This Animal Was The Size Of A Small Shoe

The Giant, Macropredatory Sperm Whale, Livyathan Melvillei, Which Lived 12-13 Million Years Ago. Each Teeth Of This Animal Was The Size Of A Small Shoe

C. M. Kosemen Report

FandomTrashHell 10 months ago

its in its emo phase

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#8 The Sword-Beaked Ichthyosaur Eurhinosaurus Has Been Typecast As A Slim, Sleek Marine Reptile, But With A Length Exceeding 6 Meters, It Must Have Been Quite A Stately Creature In Real Life

The Sword-Beaked Ichthyosaur Eurhinosaurus Has Been Typecast As A Slim, Sleek Marine Reptile, But With A Length Exceeding 6 Meters, It Must Have Been Quite A Stately Creature In Real Life

C. M. Kosemen Report

Janet Allison 10 months ago

It can fly?!

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#9 The Stubby-Armed Dinosaur, Majungasaurus, Displays With Its Flamboyant Neck Wattles And Crest

The Stubby-Armed Dinosaur, Majungasaurus, Displays With Its Flamboyant Neck Wattles And Crest

C. M. Kosemen Report

Alia Ris 10 months ago

*see head* Oh..awesome! *scroll to see the rest of the picture* wait..what?

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#10 A Jock Ctenospondylus Faces Down A Smaller Opponent Because His Back Is Not Humpy And Red Enough

A Jock Ctenospondylus Faces Down A Smaller Opponent Because His Back Is Not Humpy And Red Enough

C. M. Kosemen Report

glowworm2 10 months ago

The caption made me giggle.

#11 "Shrink-Wrap" Reconstructions Of Birds

"Shrink-Wrap" Reconstructions Of Birds

C. M. Kosemen Report

Alison Marchand 6 months ago

Oh my

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#12 Measured Drawing Of The Small Chinese Pterosaur Qinglongopterus, A Relative Of Rhamphorhynchus. This Flying Reptile Is Known From The Fossil Of A Very Small Juvennile - Not Much Larger Than The Eurasian Wren, Troglodytes Troglodytes Living Today

Measured Drawing Of The Small Chinese Pterosaur Qinglongopterus, A Relative Of Rhamphorhynchus. This Flying Reptile Is Known From The Fossil Of A Very Small Juvennile - Not Much Larger Than The Eurasian Wren, Troglodytes Troglodytes Living Today

C. M. Kosemen Report

CastoiROBLOX 10 months ago

OI I WANT ONE

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#13 Albertosaurus, The Original "Terror Bird"

Albertosaurus, The Original "Terror Bird"

C. M. Kosemen Report

Janet Allison 10 months ago

*ugh mom stop using me to measure dinosaurs*

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#14 A Bull Diplodocus Briefly Walks On Two Legs While On A Beachside Excursion, As His Kind Often Does

A Bull Diplodocus Briefly Walks On Two Legs While On A Beachside Excursion, As His Kind Often Does

C. M. Kosemen Report

Lou Wow 10 months ago

The ancestor of the unicorn.

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#15 The Swimming Reptile Polycotylus, Viewed From The Top. New Discoveries Indicate These Prehistoric Marine Reptiles Were Quite Chunky - More Like Seals And Walruses Than Snakes Or Crocodiles.

The Swimming Reptile Polycotylus, Viewed From The Top. New Discoveries Indicate These Prehistoric Marine Reptiles Were Quite Chunky - More Like Seals And Walruses Than Snakes Or Crocodiles.

C. M. Kosemen Report

Carl Ritchie 10 months ago

Croco whale!

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#16 Balaur Bondoc Lived In Late Cretaceous Romania. It Was Interpreted As A Strange, “Double-Sickle-Clawed” Relative Of Velociraptor Or Deinonychus, But It Is Now Thought To Be A Unique Relative Of Early Birds

Balaur Bondoc Lived In Late Cretaceous Romania. It Was Interpreted As A Strange, “Double-Sickle-Clawed” Relative Of Velociraptor Or Deinonychus, But It Is Now Thought To Be A Unique Relative Of Early Birds

C. M. Kosemen Report

Heather Johnson 10 months ago

Nice cat!

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#17 A Slightly Immature Pterodactylus Pterosaur By An Ancient Seashore. A Mature Specimen Can Be Seen On The Background

A Slightly Immature Pterodactylus Pterosaur By An Ancient Seashore. A Mature Specimen Can Be Seen On The Background

C. M. Kosemen Report

Mary Sears 10 months ago

Me at a family gathering

#18 Pencil Illustration Of The Ichthyosaur Acamptonectes

Pencil Illustration Of The Ichthyosaur Acamptonectes

C. M. Kosemen Report

FandomTrashHell 10 months ago

dolphin in its emo phase

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#19 The Demon-Bird Austroraptor Howls Against The Full Moon

The Demon-Bird Austroraptor Howls Against The Full Moon

C. M. Kosemen Report

Lou Wow 10 months ago

Werewolves looked funny then.

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#20 The “Bull-Horned” Ceratopsian Nasutuceratops Supplements Its Diet With A Dash Of Calcium - From An Unfortunate Turtle It Found On A River Bank

The “Bull-Horned” Ceratopsian Nasutuceratops Supplements Its Diet With A Dash Of Calcium - From An Unfortunate Turtle It Found On A River Bank

C. M. Kosemen Report

FandomTrashHell 10 months ago

turtle: N O T A G A I N

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#21 Scaled Pencil Drawings Of Large And Small Forms Of Plateosaurus. This Early Plant-Eating Dinosaur Exhibited A Large Variety In Body Sizes

Scaled Pencil Drawings Of Large And Small Forms Of Plateosaurus. This Early Plant-Eating Dinosaur Exhibited A Large Variety In Body Sizes

C. M. Kosemen Report

Heather Kong 10 months ago

Look like peacocks

#22 Pencil Study Of Massospondylus, The Goobiest Prosauropod

Pencil Study Of Massospondylus, The Goobiest Prosauropod

C. M. Kosemen Report

Carl Ritchie 10 months ago

Gerrrbe dernerrsherr!

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#23 Portrait Of Sinosaurus, A Meat-Eating Dinosaur Once Thought To Be A Species Of The Dilophosaurus

Portrait Of Sinosaurus, A Meat-Eating Dinosaur Once Thought To Be A Species Of The Dilophosaurus

C. M. Kosemen Report

Lou Wow 10 months ago

Derpy teeth!! Cute.

#24 This Small, Climbing, Fuzzy And Heterodont (Differently-Toothed) Animal As The Ultimate Ancestor Of All Dinosaurs, “Dinosauromorphs” And Pterosaurs

This Small, Climbing, Fuzzy And Heterodont (Differently-Toothed) Animal As The Ultimate Ancestor Of All Dinosaurs, “Dinosauromorphs” And Pterosaurs

C. M. Kosemen Report

Carl Ritchie 10 months ago

Greatx x10000 Grandpa Birdy.

#25 The Early Dinosaur, Eoraptor, Runs Through A Psychedelic Forest, Its Body Already Bristling With Tuft-Like Structures Ancestral To Feather

The Early Dinosaur, Eoraptor, Runs Through A Psychedelic Forest, Its Body Already Bristling With Tuft-Like Structures Ancestral To Feather

C. M. Kosemen Report

Giorgio Prodoti 10 months ago

and moustaches

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#26 An Experimental, Cave-Art-Like Rendition Of Dinosaurs. The Mid-Size Tyrannosaur, Gorgosaurus, Has Just Killed An Edmontosaurus-Like Herbivore, Two Bird-Like Troodonts Are Closing In To Share The Kill

An Experimental, Cave-Art-Like Rendition Of Dinosaurs. The Mid-Size Tyrannosaur, Gorgosaurus, Has Just Killed An Edmontosaurus-Like Herbivore, Two Bird-Like Troodonts Are Closing In To Share The Kill

C. M. Kosemen Report

#27 The Giant Meat-Eating Dinosaur, Giganotosaurus, Here Restored With A Throat Sac. This Animal Had Tiny Arms That Terminated In Hook-Like Claws

The Giant Meat-Eating Dinosaur, Giganotosaurus, Here Restored With A Throat Sac. This Animal Had Tiny Arms That Terminated In Hook-Like Claws

C. M. Kosemen Report

Janet Allison 10 months ago

Giganotosauraus? For real?!

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#28 The Newly-Discovered Polar Dinosaur Nanuqsaurus, From Fossil Deposits In Alaska, Seen Here In Scale With A Modern-Day Inuit Girl. Nanuqsaurus Was A Small-Sized Relative Of The Famous Tyrannosaurus Rex

The Newly-Discovered Polar Dinosaur Nanuqsaurus, From Fossil Deposits In Alaska, Seen Here In Scale With A Modern-Day Inuit Girl. Nanuqsaurus Was A Small-Sized Relative Of The Famous Tyrannosaurus Rex

C. M. Kosemen Report

Tam-Tam 10 months ago

That Dino has quite the smirk goin on

#29 A Pterosaur With Bird-Like Feathers

A Pterosaur With Bird-Like Feathers

C. M. Kosemen Report

Janet Allison 10 months ago

The stages of meth. It’s a hell of a drug.

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#30 The Crocodile-Like Archosaur Ticinosuchus Attacks A Long-Necked Tanystropheus

The Crocodile-Like Archosaur Ticinosuchus Attacks A Long-Necked Tanystropheus

C. M. Kosemen Report

Katz King 10 months ago

Well that long dinosaur is screwed

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#31 The Herbivorous Dinosaur Zalmoxes, Restored Speculatively With A Covering Of Thick, Pangolin-Like Scales Interspersed With Feathery Filaments

The Herbivorous Dinosaur Zalmoxes, Restored Speculatively With A Covering Of Thick, Pangolin-Like Scales Interspersed With Feathery Filaments

C. M. Kosemen Report

#32 Mosasaurs Were Gigantic, Sea-Dwelling Relatives Monitor Lizards That Lived At The Time Of The Dinosaurs

Mosasaurs Were Gigantic, Sea-Dwelling Relatives Monitor Lizards That Lived At The Time Of The Dinosaurs

C. M. Kosemen Report

#33 Male And Female Limusaurus Dinosaurs. Done In An Experimental New Style In Which I Draw, Scan, Print And Draw Over Successive Iterations Of The Same Image

Male And Female Limusaurus Dinosaurs. Done In An Experimental New Style In Which I Draw, Scan, Print And Draw Over Successive Iterations Of The Same Image

C. M. Kosemen Report

#34 Australian Dinosaurs: Australovenator Wintonensis And Two Modern-Day Emus, Dromaius Novaehollandiae. The Australovenator Figure Is Adapted From A Skeletal Drawing By Ashley Patch

Australian Dinosaurs: Australovenator Wintonensis And Two Modern-Day Emus, Dromaius Novaehollandiae. The Australovenator Figure Is Adapted From A Skeletal Drawing By Ashley Patch

C. M. Kosemen Report

Carl Ritchie 10 months ago

Emusaurus!

#35 Medium-Size Mosasurs, Swimming Lizards That Lived At The Time Of Dinosaurs, In Comparison With A Modern-Day Person

Medium-Size Mosasurs, Swimming Lizards That Lived At The Time Of Dinosaurs, In Comparison With A Modern-Day Person

C. M. Kosemen Report

#36 Measured Drawing Of The “Double Sickle-Claw” Dinosaur Balaur Bondoc From Late Cretaceous Romania, Compared To A Present-Day Dog

Measured Drawing Of The “Double Sickle-Claw” Dinosaur Balaur Bondoc From Late Cretaceous Romania, Compared To A Present-Day Dog

C. M. Kosemen Report

Virgil Blue 10 months ago

The dog looks like it's thinking "I don't know if I like this thing. Will it claw me if I Would try to smell it's bum?"

#37 The Earliest Ancestor Of Pterosaurs Could Have Been Something Like This. This Is A Speculative Animal

The Earliest Ancestor Of Pterosaurs Could Have Been Something Like This. This Is A Speculative Animal

C. M. Kosemen Report

#38 The Sail-Backed Repto-Mammal Secodontosaurus Was The Most Likely Member Of Its Group To Have Had An Aquatic Lifestyle

The Sail-Backed Repto-Mammal Secodontosaurus Was The Most Likely Member Of Its Group To Have Had An Aquatic Lifestyle

C. M. Kosemen Report

#39 The Recently Discovered Torvosaurus Gurneyi, One Of The Largest Meat-Eating Dinosaurs Known From Europe, In Scale With Torvosaurus Tanneri, Its American Relative, And A Present-Day Girl

The Recently Discovered Torvosaurus Gurneyi, One Of The Largest Meat-Eating Dinosaurs Known From Europe, In Scale With Torvosaurus Tanneri, Its American Relative, And A Present-Day Girl

C. M. Kosemen Report

Hamlets twin 10 months ago

She sure has a lot of sass for someone who is just about to be eaten

#40 Adult And Juvenile Atlasaurus Dinosaurs In Scale With A Modern-Day Person

Adult And Juvenile Atlasaurus Dinosaurs In Scale With A Modern-Day Person

C. M. Kosemen Report

#41 Measured Drawings Of The Newly-Discovered, Skin-Winged Dinosaur Yi Qi, Compared With A Modern-Day Magpie, Pica Pica

Measured Drawings Of The Newly-Discovered, Skin-Winged Dinosaur Yi Qi, Compared With A Modern-Day Magpie, Pica Pica

C. M. Kosemen Report

Carl Ritchie 10 months ago

Wyvernosaur!

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#42 This Is A Purposefully Wrong Reconstruction Of Pterodactylus With Lizard-Like Features

This Is A Purposefully Wrong Reconstruction Of Pterodactylus With Lizard-Like Features

C. M. Kosemen Report

Carl Ritchie 10 months ago

Flying Croco Pelican!