When it comes to creatures that are known to us only through fossils it's understandable that there's a lot we don’t know. Skin, fur, hair, feathers, fat tissue rarely gets fossilised and fossil remains can't tell much about the behavior of the animal. Hence, it's no secret that when it comes to palaeontology, a fair amount of speculation is allowed.


Show Full Text

C.M. Kosemen, an Istanbul-based artist has written a book "All Yesterdays" about prehistoric animals where he shared some of his speculations through illustrations.
He says that animal reconstructions based only on fossils may often pose some inaccuracies. The main reason is that many features of animal bodies may not have survived in fossils, such as pouches, or skin flaps.

Most of us have seen dinosaurs portrayed with deadly grins and massive sharp teeth making them look like terrifying predators. According to Kosemen, actual dinosaurs which inhabited the earth million years ago, may not have looked so terrifying after all. Most of the animals had lips, gums and enough facial fat to hide their vicious grins.
To avoid similar misconceptions himself, the artist tries to take more cues from animals today.

With his illustrations, Koseman challenges current depictions of dinosaurs by offering alternatives, which may be more accurate and knowledgeable.
Check them out below and tell us what you think in the comments.

More info: cmkosemen.com

#1 The Extremely Birdy Predatory Dinosaur Deinonychus Watches The Sunset At A Canyon

The Extremely Birdy Predatory Dinosaur Deinonychus Watches The Sunset At A Canyon

C. M. Kosemen Report

Lou Wow 4 months ago

*watches with its beady eyes.

View more comments

#2 Scythe-Armed, Featherless Swans

Scythe-Armed, Featherless Swans

C. M. Kosemen Report

Casandra Nițescu 4 months ago

looks like swans taken from a nightmare :D

View More Replies...
View more comments

#3 An Elephant, A Rhinoceros And A Horse Reconstructed With The Mistakes We Often See In Reconstructions Of Dinosaurs And Other Extinct Animals. From My Book, All Yesterdays, Unique And Speculative Views Of Dinosaurs And Other Prehistoric Animals

An Elephant, A Rhinoceros And A Horse Reconstructed With The Mistakes We Often See In Reconstructions Of Dinosaurs And Other Extinct Animals. From My Book, All Yesterdays, Unique And Speculative Views Of Dinosaurs And Other Prehistoric Animals

C. M. Kosemen Report

earringnut 4 months ago

this is my favorite! it shows just how far off we are of what we think we know.

View More Replies...
View more comments

#4 Two Lanky Moganopterus Pterosaurs On A Stroll At An Ancient Beach. Moganopterus Was One Of The Largest Toothed Pterosaurs

Two Lanky Moganopterus Pterosaurs On A Stroll At An Ancient Beach. Moganopterus Was One Of The Largest Toothed Pterosaurs

C. M. Kosemen Report

Lou Wow 4 months ago

How scary is this creature? Huge and deadly with the brain of a pigeon. 😝

View More Replies...
View more comments

#5 A Short-Tailed Form Of The Popular Sail-Backed Repto-Mammal Dimetrodon. The Background On This Image Is Inaccurate. These Animals Mostly Inhabited Swamps And Jungle

A Short-Tailed Form Of The Popular Sail-Backed Repto-Mammal Dimetrodon. The Background On This Image Is Inaccurate. These Animals Mostly Inhabited Swamps And Jungle

C. M. Kosemen Report

Furious_Lover 4 months ago

It a cute turtle beaver

View more comments

#6 The Intermediate-Form Pterosaur, Darwinopterus Modularis, Flashes Its Red Crest For A Potential Mate

The Intermediate-Form Pterosaur, Darwinopterus Modularis, Flashes Its Red Crest For A Potential Mate

C. M. Kosemen Report

Janet Allison 4 months ago

Now that is the devil

View more comments

#7 The Giant, Macropredatory Sperm Whale, Livyathan Melvillei, Which Lived 12-13 Million Years Ago. Each Teeth Of This Animal Was The Size Of A Small Shoe

The Giant, Macropredatory Sperm Whale, Livyathan Melvillei, Which Lived 12-13 Million Years Ago. Each Teeth Of This Animal Was The Size Of A Small Shoe

C. M. Kosemen Report

FandomTrashHell 4 months ago

its in its emo phase

View more comments

#8 The Sword-Beaked Ichthyosaur Eurhinosaurus Has Been Typecast As A Slim, Sleek Marine Reptile, But With A Length Exceeding 6 Meters, It Must Have Been Quite A Stately Creature In Real Life

The Sword-Beaked Ichthyosaur Eurhinosaurus Has Been Typecast As A Slim, Sleek Marine Reptile, But With A Length Exceeding 6 Meters, It Must Have Been Quite A Stately Creature In Real Life

C. M. Kosemen Report

#9 The Stubby-Armed Dinosaur, Majungasaurus, Displays With Its Flamboyant Neck Wattles And Crest

The Stubby-Armed Dinosaur, Majungasaurus, Displays With Its Flamboyant Neck Wattles And Crest

C. M. Kosemen Report

Alia Ris 4 months ago

*see head* Oh..awesome! *scroll to see the rest of the picture* wait..what?

View more comments

#10 A Jock Ctenospondylus Faces Down A Smaller Opponent Because His Back Is Not Humpy And Red Enough

A Jock Ctenospondylus Faces Down A Smaller Opponent Because His Back Is Not Humpy And Red Enough

C. M. Kosemen Report

glowworm2 4 months ago

The caption made me giggle.

#11 "Shrink-Wrap" Reconstructions Of Birds

"Shrink-Wrap" Reconstructions Of Birds

C. M. Kosemen Report

Alison Marchand 1 week ago

Oh my

View more comments

#12 Measured Drawing Of The Small Chinese Pterosaur Qinglongopterus, A Relative Of Rhamphorhynchus. This Flying Reptile Is Known From The Fossil Of A Very Small Juvennile - Not Much Larger Than The Eurasian Wren, Troglodytes Troglodytes Living Today

Measured Drawing Of The Small Chinese Pterosaur Qinglongopterus, A Relative Of Rhamphorhynchus. This Flying Reptile Is Known From The Fossil Of A Very Small Juvennile - Not Much Larger Than The Eurasian Wren, Troglodytes Troglodytes Living Today

C. M. Kosemen Report

CastoiROBLOX 4 months ago

OI I WANT ONE

View more comments

#13 Albertosaurus, The Original "Terror Bird"

Albertosaurus, The Original "Terror Bird"

C. M. Kosemen Report

Janet Allison 4 months ago

*ugh mom stop using me to measure dinosaurs*

View more comments

#14 A Bull Diplodocus Briefly Walks On Two Legs While On A Beachside Excursion, As His Kind Often Does

A Bull Diplodocus Briefly Walks On Two Legs While On A Beachside Excursion, As His Kind Often Does

C. M. Kosemen Report

Lou Wow 4 months ago

The ancestor of the unicorn.

View more comments

#15 The Swimming Reptile Polycotylus, Viewed From The Top. New Discoveries Indicate These Prehistoric Marine Reptiles Were Quite Chunky - More Like Seals And Walruses Than Snakes Or Crocodiles.

The Swimming Reptile Polycotylus, Viewed From The Top. New Discoveries Indicate These Prehistoric Marine Reptiles Were Quite Chunky - More Like Seals And Walruses Than Snakes Or Crocodiles.

C. M. Kosemen Report

Carl Ritchie 4 months ago

Croco whale!

View more comments

#16 Balaur Bondoc Lived In Late Cretaceous Romania. It Was Interpreted As A Strange, “Double-Sickle-Clawed” Relative Of Velociraptor Or Deinonychus, But It Is Now Thought To Be A Unique Relative Of Early Birds

Balaur Bondoc Lived In Late Cretaceous Romania. It Was Interpreted As A Strange, “Double-Sickle-Clawed” Relative Of Velociraptor Or Deinonychus, But It Is Now Thought To Be A Unique Relative Of Early Birds

C. M. Kosemen Report

Heather Johnson 4 months ago

Nice cat!

View more comments

#17 A Slightly Immature Pterodactylus Pterosaur By An Ancient Seashore. A Mature Specimen Can Be Seen On The Background

A Slightly Immature Pterodactylus Pterosaur By An Ancient Seashore. A Mature Specimen Can Be Seen On The Background

C. M. Kosemen Report

Mary Sears 4 months ago

Me at a family gathering

#18 Pencil Illustration Of The Ichthyosaur Acamptonectes

Pencil Illustration Of The Ichthyosaur Acamptonectes

C. M. Kosemen Report

FandomTrashHell 4 months ago

dolphin in its emo phase

View More Replies...
View more comments

#19 The Demon-Bird Austroraptor Howls Against The Full Moon

The Demon-Bird Austroraptor Howls Against The Full Moon

C. M. Kosemen Report

Lou Wow 4 months ago

Werewolves looked funny then.

View more comments

#20 The “Bull-Horned” Ceratopsian Nasutuceratops Supplements Its Diet With A Dash Of Calcium - From An Unfortunate Turtle It Found On A River Bank

The “Bull-Horned” Ceratopsian Nasutuceratops Supplements Its Diet With A Dash Of Calcium - From An Unfortunate Turtle It Found On A River Bank

C. M. Kosemen Report

FandomTrashHell 4 months ago

turtle: N O T A G A I N

View more comments

#21 Scaled Pencil Drawings Of Large And Small Forms Of Plateosaurus. This Early Plant-Eating Dinosaur Exhibited A Large Variety In Body Sizes

Scaled Pencil Drawings Of Large And Small Forms Of Plateosaurus. This Early Plant-Eating Dinosaur Exhibited A Large Variety In Body Sizes

C. M. Kosemen Report

Heather Kong 4 months ago

Look like peacocks

#22 Pencil Study Of Massospondylus, The Goobiest Prosauropod

Pencil Study Of Massospondylus, The Goobiest Prosauropod

C. M. Kosemen Report

Carl Ritchie 4 months ago

Gerrrbe dernerrsherr!

View more comments

#23 Portrait Of Sinosaurus, A Meat-Eating Dinosaur Once Thought To Be A Species Of The Dilophosaurus

Portrait Of Sinosaurus, A Meat-Eating Dinosaur Once Thought To Be A Species Of The Dilophosaurus

C. M. Kosemen Report

Lou Wow 4 months ago

Derpy teeth!! Cute.

#24 This Small, Climbing, Fuzzy And Heterodont (Differently-Toothed) Animal As The Ultimate Ancestor Of All Dinosaurs, “Dinosauromorphs” And Pterosaurs

This Small, Climbing, Fuzzy And Heterodont (Differently-Toothed) Animal As The Ultimate Ancestor Of All Dinosaurs, “Dinosauromorphs” And Pterosaurs

C. M. Kosemen Report

Carl Ritchie 4 months ago

Greatx x10000 Grandpa Birdy.

#25 The Early Dinosaur, Eoraptor, Runs Through A Psychedelic Forest, Its Body Already Bristling With Tuft-Like Structures Ancestral To Feather

The Early Dinosaur, Eoraptor, Runs Through A Psychedelic Forest, Its Body Already Bristling With Tuft-Like Structures Ancestral To Feather

C. M. Kosemen Report

Giorgio Prodoti 4 months ago

and moustaches

View more comments